Are Your Candles Toxic?

Image: lit and unlit nontoxic candles beeswax candles

One of the simplest pleasures in life is coming home from a stressful day of work and lighting an aromatherapy candle with a special scent intended to make you feel calm and relaxed. Unfortunately, that seemingly harmless candle could be filling the air in your home with carcinogenic soot and lead emissions.

That news might make you tempted to clutch your candles to your chest and declare that someone will take them away from you when they pry them out of your stressed-out, soot-stained hands. Fortunately, the solution to the candle pollution problem doesn’t have to be that extreme. Alternatives to toxic aromatherapy candles abound. For example, would beeswax candles or soy candles be safe, nontoxic candles to use? With very little effort, you can fill your home with soothing scents without filling it with toxic gases.

What's Wrong With My Candles?

The biggest issue with candles are toxic wax and, in the case of older candles, toxic wicks.

Avoid aromatherapy candles made of paraffin—a petroleum byproduct—which releases carcinogenic soot when burned. The soot can also cause respiratory problems and will aggravate the conditions of those who already have asthma, lung, or heart problems.

“Burning an aromatherapy candle made of paraffin is similar to preparing a healthy drink of fresh-squeezed juice and adding a shot of gasoline,” says Eric Johnson of Candleworks, an Iowa City, Iowa-based company that specializes in wholesaling nontoxic aromatherapy candles.

Besides endangering your health and that of your family, soot from paraffin wax can cause significant damage to the inside of your house, plus your computers, electrical appliances, and ductwork.

“Some families have reported so much soot damage that they have filed insurance claims, only to find such damages aren’t covered in their policies,” says natural living expert Debra Lynn Dadd, author of Home Safe Home (Tarcher Perigee Publishers, 1997) and six other books about safe and nontoxic products.

And if that weren’t enough, aromatherapy candles that are scented with synthetic oils release microscopic particles that can cause cancer and other health problems when inhaled.

Once upon a time, many scented candles on the market contained lead-core wicks. Fragrance oils soften the wax, so the manufacturers used lead to make the wicks stand firm.

Fortunately, unless you have candles more than a decade old, they probably don’t have a lead-core wick, because those were banned in 2003. A candle with a lead-core wick releases five times the amount of lead considered hazardous for children and exceeds EPA pollution standards for outdoor air, says the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). Exposure to high amounts of lead has been linked to hormone disruption, behavioral problems, learning disabilities, and numerous health problems. If you think you may still have lead-wicked candles in your home, see below for a quick test.

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The No-Lead Test

To find out whether a candle has a lead wick, follow these steps:

  1. Look for a “lead-free” label when shopping for new candles.
  2. If you have a candle that has not been burned yet, rub the tip of the wick of on a piece of paper. If it leaves a gray mark, like a pencil, the wick contains a lead core. If you’ve already purchased the candle, take it back to the store and tell the manager why you’re demanding a refund.
  3. For candles that have already been burned, you should just throw out any that have metal cores as a precaution. Simply look at the tip of the wick and see if it has a metal core. If you still can’t tell, peel back some of the cotton. 

Beeswax Candles and Other Non-Toxic Candle Alternatives

There are no rules or bans in the works for paraffin candles and those scented with synthetic oils. In the meantime, you don’t have to give up candles altogether if you follow these guidelines.

  • Buy 100 percent beeswax candles with cotton wicks, which are free of toxic chemicals. Beeswax can cost as much as six times the price of paraffin, so many candle manufacturers blend paraffin with their beeswax to cut costs. Be sure your candles say 100 percent beeswax on the label.
  • Buy candles made from 100 percent vegetable-based waxes, which are also nontoxic. 
  • To reduce soot, no matter what kind of wicks are in your candles, trim wicks to 1/8 inch, and do not burn candles in a drafty area.
  • Find safe candles from certified green businesses at

Candle-Free Aromatherapy

If you can’t find the right nontoxic aromatherapy candle to get rid of tension headaches or rejuvenate your tired body, you may want to try using pure essential oils. Pure, organic oils can give you the same aromatherapy benefits as scented candles, and you can choose and blend your own scents.

Essential oils, while nontoxic, are very potent. Research the best way to use the oils you’re working with, as well as any precautions that should be taken with them. (Pregnant women should be particularly cautious when using essential oils.) Consult a qualified aromatherapist or a good reference book first.

Once you’ve chosen your favorite oils blends, there are a few ways to release the scents in your home:

  • Use a diffuser. These are simple containers—most often made of glass, marble, or ceramic—which release the scent from essential oils when heated either with electricity or a small tea light candle. Usually, six to ten drops of essential oil in a diffuser is all it takes to scent a room.
  • Use a ring burner. These metal rings have a reservoir that holds a few drops of essential oil and will fit around a lightbulb, using the heat to disperse the oil’s scent.
  • Take a bath. Add five to ten drops of essential oils to a warm bath. Close the bathroom door and soak for 15 minutes. Remember, essential oils can mark plastic bathtubs, so be sure to clean the tub when you’re finished.
  • Make a spray. Blend ten drops of essential oil in seven tablespoons of water. Shake well before filling the sprayer.

Whether you choose to go candle-free or opt for a nontoxic candle like 100% beeswax candles, you can relax knowing that these healthier alternatives will be easier on your lungs and the air in your home.